Fractures & Dislocations

A Colles’ fracture is a fracture involving the distal radial bone (radius) which is situated at the end of the forearm near the wrist joint. The injury normally involves a forwards (dorsal) displacement of the bone and is sometimes known as a ‘dinner-fork’ injury due to the deformity of the forearm that may take place. […]

The patella (kneecap) glides up and down the front of the femur (thigh bone) along the femoral trochlear groove as the knee bends and straightens. The patella may dislocate away from the groove if the tendons and ligaments around the patella provide inadequate support and stability or during forceful movements. Causes: Dislocation of the patella […]

One of the most common injuries amongst boxers is a fracture to the neck of the 5th metacarpal bone following a direct punch. Causes: An unlucky direct punch on to a firm object or an opponent during boxing is the most likely cause of a 5th metacarpal fracture. Symptoms & Diagnosis: Pain is the immediate […]

The scaphoid bone is one of eight carpal bones situated on the lateral side of the wrist and forms part of the radio-carpal joint. Due to the complications that may result following a fracture to the scaphoid, the correct management of the injury is vital. Causes: A scaphoid fracture is normally caused by a direct […]

   Each finger and thumb consists of a metacarpal bone and the respective number of phalangeal bones. The joints involved are called the ‘metacarpo-phalangeal joint’ and the ‘inter-phalangeal joints’. Fractures and dislocations of the bones and joints of the digits can severely affect function if the problem is not diagnosed and managed correctly. Such injuries […]

The two bones that connect the knee joint with the ankle joint are the two long bones known as the tibia and fibula. The tibia is the medial bone which transmits the majority of the force in the lower leg. The fibula is the lateral bone. The bones may fracture following a traumatic incident such […]

  The rib cage consists of twelve rib bones situated on either side of the spine and the upper ribs join anteriorly at the front at the sternum. The rib cage protects many major organs of the body from direct trauma. Heavy impact to the torso may lead to one or a few fractured ribs. […]

The ankle acts as one of the main weight-bearing joints of the body as the foot strikes the ground during the gait cycle. The ankle joint is a complex joint and is made up of the talus bone and the distal part of the tibia & fibula. Various ligaments, muscles, tendons and the joint capsule […]

Metatarsal fractures occur in everyday life with trauma or may occur during exercise and when taking part in sport Causes: Metatarsal fractures often occur through trauma during contact sports such as football and rugby. Stress fractures may occur with repetitive use and subsequent force exerted on the bones. Such fractures are common in running. Biomechanical […]

The heel bone (calcaneus) is the initial point of ground contact during the gait cycle as the heel strikes the ground. High impact activity exerts a lot of pressure on the calcaneus during running, walking, jumping and other leisure and sporting activities. A forceful and sudden load on the point of heel contact may result […]

The hip joint connects the femur bone to the pelvis. Fractures of the hip commonly occur around the femoral head within the site of the hip joint. An avulsion fractures occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the bone itself. Such fractures are normally associated with damage to the ligaments or tendons situated […]

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